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Образовательное учреждение профсоюзов высшего образования

«Академия труда и социальных отношений»
Кафедра профессиональных иностранных языков

РЕФЕРАТ

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык»

по монографии «Occupational Health Psychology»

tavroula Leka and Jonathan Houdmont
(«Психология Профессионального Здоровья»)


Выполнила:

Аспирант кафедры трудового права

первого года обучения

Голенских Светлана Анатольевна

Проверила:

К.п.н., профессор

Ирина Владимировна Матвеева


Москва – 2015

Contents

  1. Summary ………………………………………………………………..3

  2. The original text……………………………………………………….. 15

  3. Translation…………………………………………………………….. 28

  4. Glossary………………………………………………………………...43

  5. References……………………………………………………………….49


1. Summary

The Monograph ‘Occupational Health Psychology’ concludes 11 chapters.

The first chapter of the book introduces occupational health psychology (OHP) by defining the subject matter and exploring the features that make it distinct from other related areas. The influence of key research groups and studies, characteristics of the changing world of work, and legislative developments that have contributed to the development of the discipline, are considered. The chapter closes by introducing the bodies that represent and support research, training, and professional practice in occupational health psychology on the international stage.

Contemporary changes to the content and context of work suggest thatthe prevalence of psychosocial risks is likely to increase. OHP practitionershave a unique contribution to make to the management of suchrisks.

The discipline is represented by European and North American bodiesthat work collaboratively to support the sustainable development of thefield.

This chapter has introduced the reader to the discipline of OHP, the nature ofits practice, the emergence of the discipline, and the representative bodiesthat support research, education, and practice on the international stage.Having read this chapter, it is hoped that you will have developed anappreciation of the unique blend of knowledge and skills that the OHPpractitioner brings to the management of occupational safety and healthissues associated with the contemporary world of work.

The second chapter offers a theoretical perspective on work-related stress. It considersthe theories and models that frame our current understanding andoffers an architecture for organizing these theories. It distinguishes betweenthe earlier theories and the more contemporary ones, offering a critiquethat allows us to understand both the arguments and the paradigms drivingthe development of those theories and their respective strengths and weaknesses.

The chapter closes as it began with an overview of the broad developments in

work-related stress theory that have occurred over the past 30 years. They are:

-the application of Karasek’s (1979) Demand–Control theory of stress at national and international policy levels and, in some countries, to national legislation in health and safety;

- the rise in importance in research of Siegrist’s (1996) Effort–Reward Imbalance theory and the now frequent comparison of this theory with that of Karasek’s in terms of how well they account of the availableresearch data;

- the translation of theories of work-related stress into a practical methodfor reducing the associated risks to worker health and safety at theorganizational level;

- the recognition that our theories do not have an adequate conceptual andmethodological framework in either research or practice and that the nextmajor developments have to be in this area;

- recognition of the value of these advances, that they might not be enough,and that something more radical is needed.

The third chapter builds upon their conceptual overview bydescribing some of the key relationships among work/organization factorsand workers’ health and well-being outcomes. The chapter specifically examinespsychosocial hazards or stressors which have been demonstrated byresearch to have a bearing on either individual well-being or organizationalproductivity-related variables. Our aim is not topresent an exhaustive review of the vast literature on these topics, but ratherto provide representative evidence and discussion of relationships betweenworkplace hazards and health, along with suggestions for future researchdevelopments in this field.

In this chapter we have considered a range of important work-related stressors (or hazards) and their potential impact on the occupational health and wellbeing of individuals in their workplaces. As we noted early in the chapter, the effects of these stressors have been well documented in research and as a result there is substantial knowledge of their relevance to variables such as psychological strain, subjective well-being, and physical health. We should comment that, while we have examined a wide range of psychosocial stressors which are pertinent to experiences at work, our overview has not been exhaustive and there are other factors which may also be relevant for particular occupational groups or in specific settings. Nevertheless, we have covered stressors which have received most attention in empirical research on health and well-being. The present chapter complements others in this volume, especially those on stress theory, risk management, interventions, and health promotion. In particular, the identification of stressors or hazards, which is sometimes referred to as a stress audit, underpins interventions which are designed to reduce stress and enhance well-being. A stress audit can be conducted via self-report questionnaires. This process also has substantial implications for the practical management of worker well-being, in that it can assist managers, occupational health and safety offices, and others in the organization to obtain valuable information on the likely antecedents of occupational health and well-being, as well as determining effective strategies for reducing stress and enhancing well-being among workers.

The fourth chapter shows that intervention is a complex topic for both students and practitioners of OHP. We argue that this also makes it an interesting andvibrant area of research and practice. The conclusion often found in researchpapers that ‘more research is needed’ is an extremely appropriate summary ofthe current state of intervention research. As the volume of research grows itwill become easier to identify consistent trends and patterns in the findingsthat can be used to design, implement and evaluate future interventions.

Primary interventionsthat are based on a good analysis of the problem, designed with theinvolvement of organizational stakeholders, and implemented carefully havea good chance of success. This appears to be particularly true for interventionsthat enhance control at work and it may be the case for other workstressors once more evaluation research becomes available. Secondary interventionsappear to have a consistent impact on individual-level outcomes,but their impact on organizational outcomes is less certain. Indeed, there is a need for greater research that looks at thelinks between intervention and changes in organizational outcomes. It wouldalso be useful to see researchers take a more detailed look at the reliability,validity, and sensitivity of so-called ‘objective’ organizational-level measuresof intervention effectiveness.

For all types of interventions, the way they are implemented goes someway towards determining effectiveness. The influence of intervention processesand intervention context on intervention outcomes is likely to be anarea of focus for much future research.

It appears likely that no single approach to intervention provides a ‘silverbullet’ for dealing with occupational health problems. Given the current bodyof research, organizations are best advised to adopt an integrated approach tointervention that is based around the results of rigorous risk assessment.

Tailoring the selection of intervention strategies and the design of interventiondelivery to the presenting problem and the organizational context offersthe best chance of success.

Secondary and tertiary interventions are particularly suitable when sometask(s) that is inherent to good job performance is likely to be stressful. These interventionsalso help individuals to deal with a range of problems at work. However, animportant part of the role of the OHP practitioner is to make organizationsaware that there is much that can be achieved with primary interventions.

The fifth charter dealing with psychosocial risks is an increasingly important part of the challengeof safety and health at work. Many of the effects of such issues appear to bemediated by the experience of stress and the available evidence indicates thatwork-related stress is a major source of ill-health among the working population.

The complex a etiology of work-related stress provides us with an interestingchallenge and its mechanisms and causes may never be completely understood intheir finest detail. However, there is a moral, as well as a scientific and legalimperative to act in order to reduce the harm associated with psychosocial risksand work-related stress. The risk management paradigm provides a frameworkfor positive action – focused on prevention and on work organization.

The sixth chapter covered in the major points:

•There is a large gap between WHP theory and practice and OHPs can playa key role in bridging this divide.

• Contemporary views of WHP are based on internationally recognized definitions of ‘health’ and ‘health promotion’.

• Health is conceptualized as a resource for everyday life, not the object of living.

• Health is shaped by a broad range of individual, social, economic andpolitical factors and, as many of these factors are outside the control ofindividuals, a key goal of health promotion is to identify the underlyingdeterminants of health and help individuals and groups to gain controlover these forces.

• The individually-oriented approach to WHP focuses heavily on the ‘absence

of disease’ definition of health and tends to use the workplace as a convenientvenue for identifying those who are at risk of experiencing lifestyle-relateddiseases and encouraging them to adopt healthier patterns of behaviour.

• Several criticisms have been directed at the individual approach, namelythe tendency to concentrate on individual behaviours at the exclusion of underlying determinants, failing to meet international standards onoccupational health and safety and health promotion.

• The settings-based approach to WHP emphasizes the importance ofcreating working environments (physical, social and organizational) thatprotect and promote the health of employees. Worker-directed strategiesstill have a role to play in these programmes, however, only when theycomplement (not replace) strategies aimed at building safer, fairer andmore satisfying workplaces.

• The way in which WHP programmes are planned and developed can bejust as ‘health promoting’ as the strategies that are designed to addressparticular health issues, hence, practitioners need to be familiar withthe wide range of processes and methods that can be employed whenplanning, implementing, and evaluating WHP programmes.

• The programme planning framework discussed in this chapter includesseven broad, interdependent steps: (1) gaining management support;(2) establishing a coordinating group; (3) conducting a needs assessment and issue analyses;(4) identifying priority issues and setting intervention goals; (5) designinginterventions and an action plan; (6) implementing interventions; and(7) evaluating implementation processes and intervention effectiveness.

There is a clear need for WHP practice to move from the individuallyorientedapproach of ‘doing health promotion in the work setting’ to the morecomprehensive, settings-based model that aims to create working environmentsthat protect and promote health. Given the importance of work andworkplaces in people’s lives, many would argue that substantial improvementsin the health of individual employees, their families and whole communitieswould not be possible without this shift being made. Occupational healthpsychologists have the potential to make many valuable contributions to thedevelopment of this more contemporary approach, both in terms of promotinggreater awareness of the settings-based model and in actively working withmanagers, employees, and their representatives to develop comprehensive WHP initiatives.

OHPs and otherworkplace health professionals therefore need to work closely with managers,employees, and their representatives to ensure that health-related issues areidentified and addressed in a systematic manner and that, ultimately, thesestrategies enhance the health both of organizations and their members.

The seventh chapter imaginesthat you were working as a waiter in a restaurant, and that you wereoften confronted with complaining customers.

From a Positive Occupational HealthPsychology (POHP) perspective, employees may use optimism and humorto deal with complaining customers. Additionally, organizations can designresourceful workplaces and foster employee engagement. Such positive qualitiescontribute to employee health, well-being, and job performance. In sum:

• Negative emotions have adaptive value in that they narrow our though taction repertoires to those that best promoted our ancestor’s survival inlife-threatening situations.

• Broaden-and-build theory states that positive emotions broaden an individual’smindset and by doing so help to develop enduring personalresources.

• Positive psychology rehabilitated the focus on people’s strengths and

virtues.

• POHP is the study and application of optimal functioning in the workplace.

POHP is a complementary perspective that takes both positive andnegative aspects in consideration.

Engaged workers are characterized by high levels of energy (vigour), high involvement in their job (dedication), and by being fully concentrated andhappily engrossed in their work (absorption).

Work engagement is associated with numerous positive outcomes.

Job resources are motivating and can buffer the negative effects of highjob demands. Such resources become particularly salient in the context ofhigh job demands.

Psychological capital (PsyCap) is characterized by self-efficacy, optimism,hope, and resiliency. One of the key inclusion criteria is that it can beeffectively managed for performance improvement.

Organizations may build work engagement by offering job resources.However, employees can also mobilize their own resources and have animpact on their work environment. This is called job crafting.

Positive spillover refers to a process whereby experience or participation inthe work (family) role increases the quality or performance in the family(work) role.Positive interventions are state-like, measurable, developmental, and thereis a strong link with performance.
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