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The eighth chapter sets ourselves the goals of outlining the part playedby the design of the physical environment in respect of OHP’s focus upon theinterplay of psychological, social, and organizational aspects of work inimpacting upon individual and organizational health. In doing so, we soughtboth to review some of the evidence that the design of the physical workspacehas a discernible effect on employee well-being and behaviour and to provide general explanation, or framework, to guide interpretation of an environmentalpsychology of the workplace.

What is hopefully clear from the evidence reviewed in respect of the open plan office, windows in the workplace, and the negative impact of evenrelatively low intensity noise is that the physical environment of the workplacedoes indeed have a marked and measurable impact upon worker well-being and behaviour. Research exploring other aspects of the physical environment.

What has hopefully also been made apparent is the need, in researching theimpact of the physical workspace, to consider and examine the possibilitythat the physical environment has both direct and indirect effects upon employee well-being and behaviour. In short, the physical workspace mightimpact upon behaviour both independently of psychosocial aspects of workand in combination with them. The full impact of the physical environment of the workplacecan only be known when both direct and indirect effects are accounted for.

While an increasing amount of evidence points to the demonstratedimpact of the physical workspace upon well-being and behaviour there is still much to be known. One area of possible future inquiry is to fully unpackthe meaning, mechanisms, and significance of control over the physicalworkspace. While some form of mastery or functional control over environmentalconditions is one obvious mechanism of control, so too are the abilityto personalize the workspace and employee involvement in the design processitself.

The issue of office personalisation brings to the fore the possibility that thephysical workspace has both functional and symbolic influence. In his famous dictum, Kurt Lewin argued that behaviour is a function of person by environment. While, to date, much of the emphasis in workpsychology has been to construe the environment in social terms, the argumenthere is not only that we should give due account to the physicalenvironment but that the physical and social environments are inextricablyintertwined. Thus a supportive physical environmentmight be construed as part andparcel of a supportive social and organizational environment. In essence, thequality and character of the physical environment at work is read as amessage or communication of the value, status, and worth ascribed tothose who work there. The investigation of symbolic workspaceis a further likely area of fruitful research endeavour.

Since teamwork is becoming ever more important in the modern workplacethe manner inwhich physical workspace can support team identity, development, cohesion,and performance is another critical area of future inquiry.

The concept of stress, we believe, provides a useful heuristic for exploringthe impact of the physical environment of the workplace, not least because itholds appraisal processes at its core, accommodates and integrates physicaland psychosocial elements within a single explanatory framework, and givesdue weight to individual differences and other moderating factors. Just asimportantly, the concept of stress provides a simple means of making sense ofwhat the physical workspace should and should not do to support individualand organizational health and effectiveness.

The ninth chapter shows that organizations and business networks are

increasingly acknowledging the relevance of corporate culture and corporatesocial responsibility for the functioning of organizations, and for promoting(or managing) health and well-being. Key to the development of organizationalculture is the development of shared values, thereby integrating theminto the ‘basic assumptions’ of the organization. While there is already atradition of fostering ‘safety cultures’ in organizations, the attention on theimpact of culture on health and well-being is relatively new.

The resource perspective on health and well-being is also rather new, and isclearly different from the medical profession’s focus on ill-health and returnto work. The latter focus is usually limited to the 5 per cent of the employeesthat are ‘at risk’. From a resource perspective it is more important to focus onthe health and well-being of 100 per cent of the employees, as this willimprove their mental and social functioning and thereby their productivityand creativity. The examples from the networks of CSR Europe andEnterprise for Health show that it is important for companies to learnfrom each other in this new challenge. In this way, companies pursue adouble dividend from their investments in policies and practices for healthand well-being, to the benefit of individual employees, the organization,and – often implicitly – for society at large.

The tenth charter begins with, that is, the occupationalhealth psychologist who was asked by the management of a large IT firm toconduct a study on the health and well-being of their employees.

The scientific approach refers to the process or method that is used togenerate a body of knowledge concerning a phenomenon deemed to be ofinterest. In generating (or contributing to) this body of knowledge researchersrely on formal, systematic observation to help them find answersto the questions that interest them.

In an appliedcontext, it is vitally important that the study goal and research questionsmatch with the interests of the organization, imposing practical constraintson the study’s aims.

A good research design allows researchers to rule out alternative explanationsfor their findings, other than the hypotheses they intend to test.

This means that researchers must be able to control for the effects ofvariables that are of little substantive interest.A main distinction can be made between quantitative versus qualitative approaches. Quantitative approaches emphasize the testing of theorydrivenhypotheses and data analysis using advanced statistical techniques. Qualitative approaches are often used in an hypothesis-generating mode.

Such an approach becomes more appropriate when the context or participant’sinterpretations are central to the research question, when answeringthis question requires very detailed data, or when the research has anexploratory, hypothesis-generating focus.

Quantitative research designs may be true or quasi-experimental studiesor field studies. Participants in true experiments are randomly assigned tothe conditions of interest. In quasi-experiments participants are notusually randomly assigned to these. Field studies can be either cross sectional or longitudinal.

A major issue in field studies is assuring that a sufficiently high responserate is obtained: this will prevent problems with the statistical power oftests as well as with the degree to whichsample-based findings can be generalized to the population of interest.

The measures used should be reliable, valid, and useful in the context under study.The validity of a measure can be established by demonstrating its face,content and criterion validity. In conjunction these three forms of validityprovide evidence for the fourth and most important criterion, namely theconstruct validity of the measure.

The eleventh chapter shows two decades OHP has established itself as self-sustaining applied scientific discipline.

Future trends in OHP research will be determined by external forcesrelated to developments in work organization, and forces internal to thediscipline associated with the evolution of science.There exist a number of barriers to the publication ofOHPresearch generated by and of use to practitioners. OHP is an applied branch of science;the international community needs to ensure that appropriate publicationopportunities exist for the dissemination of practice-oriented research.

Education and training is recognized by the discipline’s representative bodies as key to the long-term sustainability of research and professionalpractice. Researchers have begun to investigate the possible constitution ofa core educational curriculum; an important first step in the creation of programme accreditation procedures that are likely to exist as a keycomponent within future professional training pathways.

OHP is an applied discipline: the establishment of professional practice asa career of choice is important to its longevity.

The same holds true for this textbook. The aim herein has not been to offer acomprehensive account of OHP activity; rather, the goal was to introducesome of the key issues that the discipline has addressed, and to consider some of themethodological approaches used to help us understand these transactions.Moreover, it is hoped that the chapters within this book have inspired you,the reader, to consider a rewarding career in OHP.


2. Письменный перевод с английского на русский язык монографии «Occupational Health Psychology»


1

An Introduction to

Occupational Health

Psychology
Jonathan Houdmont and Stavroula Leka
CHAPTER OUTLINE
This chapter introduces occupational health psychology by defining the subject

matter and exploring the features that make it distinct from other related areas.

The influence of key research groups and studies, characteristics of the changing

world of work, and legislative developments that have contributed to the

development of the discipline, are considered. The chapter closes by introducing

the bodies that represent and support research, training, and professional

practice in occupational health psychology on the international stage.
Introduction
There are numerous descriptors for subject specialties that concern the application of

psychology in the workplace: industrial and organizational psychology, work and

organizational psychology, work and health psychology, vocational psychology, and

occupational psychology to name but a few. Each of these specialties has a distinct

perspective on the dynamic relationship between work and the worker (although some

overlap is inevitable), and exists as a formalized entity supported, to varying degrees, by

representative bodies, academic and practitioner journals, international conferences,

and professional training pathways. To this collection there is a new entrant that since

the early 1990s has attracted interest, but about which little has been written for the

student embarking upon study of the specialty: occupational health psychology.

In this chapter we set out the nature and definition of this specialty, and trace its

emergence by selectively highlighting a series of influential research groups and studies,

characteristics of the changing world of work, and legislative developments that have

2

materialized during the twentieth century in Europe and North America. We conclude

with an examination of the contemporary character of occupational health psychology

in which consideration is given to structures that exist to support the research, training,

and practitioner activities of an expanding international constituency.
What is Occupational Health Psychology?
Where did the term ‘occupational health psychology’ originate?

What is the vision of occupational health psychology?

Why is occupational health psychology important?
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a youthful discipline with much to offer

the aspiring practitioner. This book is designed to facilitate the knowledge development

of those who wish to develop a career in OHP: individuals with a curiosity and

enthusiasm for the application of psychological theory and evidence to bring about

improvements in the health of workers. Theterm ‘occupational health psychology’

was coined in 1990 at the University of Hawaii by a team of academics who observed

unfulfilled potential for psychologists to support the development of healthy work

environments (Raymond,Wood, & Patrick, 1990). OHP has grown at a rapid rate in

the two decades that have passed since Raymond and colleagues set in motion a new

specialty. This can be seen in, among other things, the ongoing rise in the submission

rate of scientific articles to the discipline’s dedicated academic journals (Journal of

Occupational Health Psychology and Work & Stress), and the influence of these

journals within the broader applied psychology field; the growth in researcher,

educator, practitioner, and student attendance at international OHP conferences;

the expansion of OHP training provision in Europe and North America; the growth

in employment opportunities for OHP practitioners; and the expansion of outlets

for practitioners to publish and share best practice.

Alongside these activities, debate on the nature and scope of OHP has crystallized

and consensus has developed among academics and practitioners on its aims and

objectives. This has allowed for the advancement of a shared vision whereby OHP is

understood to have its focus on the creation of ‘healthy workplaces in which people

may produce, serve, grow, and be valued’ (Quick et al., 1997, p. 3). Within this

vision, healthy workplaces are understood to be ones ‘where people use their talents

and gifts to achieve high performance, high satisfaction, and well-being’ (ibid.).

The appeal of OHP can be found in the important and unique role it plays in the

management of challenges to safety and health in the organizational context. For

many decades, prior to the advent of OHP, occupational safety and health professionals

had at their disposal a knowledge- and skill-set that was fit for purpose in

respect of the control and prevention of exposures to traditional work-related

hazards such as physical, biological, or chemical agents (Sauter&Hurrell, 1999).

The practitioner’s professional toolkit was robust and effective in so far as it was

designed to deal with the prevalent work-related hazards of the time. The adequacy

of the toolkit was, however, called into question towards the end of the twentieth


5

Summary

The OHP moniker was coined in 1990, since which time the discipline has flourished

in Europe and North America. Agreement can be found on the vision for OHP, and

the discipline now plays an important role in the prevention of occupational illness

and injury, and promotion of occupational health and well-being.
The Definition of Occupational Health Psychology
How is occupational health psychology defined?

What commonalities and differences exist between European and North

American definitions?
With any youthful discipline it takes time for consensus to develop around a

precise definition in respect of its key ingredients or features. OHP is no exception;

although there is agreement among the discipline’s protagonists on its aims and

objectives, evidence of divergence can be found between North American and

European perspectives on its definition (Cox, 2000). This is specifically so in

relation to the specialties that inform and comprise OHP. At one level it could

be argued that divergence is a mere matter of semantics because OHP protagonists

the world over adhere to a universal understanding of the discipline. However,

because the definitions adhered to by academics will determine, in part, the

content of training programmes, divergence may have the unfortunate consequence

of conspiring against the creation of programme accreditation procedures

and professional training pathways that are required to sustain the discipline in the

long term.

For this reason, it is imperative that international consensus is ultimately

achieved on the definition of OHP. Fortunately, despite the absence of a shared

heritage across the international OHP community, broad agreement on the nature

of the discipline can be found in the definitions advanced by the discipline’s

European and North American representative bodies. In Europe, the generally

accepted definition is that advanced by the European Academy of Occupational

Health Psychology (EAOHP). This is based on the definition posited by Cox,

Baldursson, and RialGonza´lez (2000), whereby OHP is considered ‘the contribution

of applied psychology to occupational health’ (p. 101). This definition locates

OHP at the interface between occupational health and psychology. Cox and

colleagues suggest that the areas of psychology that might be applied in addressing

occupational health issues include health psychology, work and organizational

psychology, and social and environmental psychology. This perspective is illustrated

in Figure 1.1. The contribution of these areas of psychology implies that

OHP practitioners have their focus on the psychological, social, and organizational


6


Social and Environmental

Psychology





Work and Organizational


Health Psychology



Psychology Occupational Health Psychology



Figure 1.1 Foundations of European occupational health psychology.
aspects of occupational health questions. The European perspective recognizes that

occupational health is a multidisciplinary area and that OHP practitioners offer a

focused specialization that they may usefully apply within multidisciplinary teams.

In this way, it ‘requires that European occupational health psychologists are aware

of and recognize the contributions that can be made by others, and can appreciate

their intellectual positions, knowledge and practical skills’ (ibid., p. 103).

The North American perspective on OHP is in large part consistent with the

European approach. Nevertheless, differences can be identified. Whereas the

European tradition draws on procedures, practices, and methodologies from various

fields of applied psychology, North American definitions encompass psychological

perspectives alongside those from other occupational sciences such as occupational

and environmental health, organizational behaviour, human factors,

sociology, industrial engineering, ergonomics, and economics (Adkins, 1999;

Chen, Huang, &DeArmond, 2005). This perspective gives rise to the definition

advanced by the North American representative body for the discipline – the

Society for Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP) – whereby OHP is viewed as

involving:

The interdisciplinary partnerships of psychological and occupational health science

professionals seeking to improve the quality of working life, and enhance the safety,

health and well-being of workers in all occupations. Because it exists at the intersection

of behavioral science and occupational health disciplines, OHP is inclusive

of knowledge and methods from psychology, public/occupational health, organizational

studies, human factors, and allied fields (such as occupational sociology,

industrial engineering, economics, and others). (Society for Occupational Health

Psychology, 2008)

This multidisciplinary perspective, illustrated in Figure 1.2, was established at

the outset of the discipline’s existence in North America. In their seminal

article, Raymond, Wood, and Patrick (1990) called for training in a discipline

that ‘would integrate and synthesize insights, frameworks and knowledge from a

diverse number of specialties, principally health psychology and occupational


7



Public Health

Psychology



Occupational Health and

Safety




Management



Medicine



Occupational Health Psychology




Figure 1.2 Foundations of North American occupational health psychology (adapted

from Adkins, 1999).
(public) health but also preventative medicine, occupational medicine, behavioral

medicine, nursing, political science, sociology and business’ (p. 1159).

57
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